# This code is derived from the "Deep Learning Tutorials" at deeplearning.net.
# See http://deeplearning.net/tutorial/logreg.html, and see license.txt for
# their copyright notice.
"""
This tutorial introduces logistic regression using Theano and stochastic
gradient descent.
Logistic regression is a probabilistic, linear classifier. It is parametrized
by a weight matrix :math:`W` and a bias vector :math:`b`. Classification is
done by projecting data points onto a set of hyperplanes, the distance to
which is used to determine a class membership probability.
Mathematically, this can be written as:
.. math::
P(Y=i|x, W,b) &= softmax_i(W x + b) \\
&= \frac {e^{W_i x + b_i}} {\sum_j e^{W_j x + b_j}}
The output of the model or prediction is then done by taking the argmax of
the vector whose i'th element is P(Y=i|x).
.. math::
y_{pred} = argmax_i P(Y=i|x,W,b)
This tutorial presents a stochastic gradient descent optimization method
suitable for large datasets.
References:
- textbooks: "Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning" -
Christopher M. Bishop, section 4.3.2
"""
__docformat__ = 'restructedtext en'
import numpy
import theano
import theano.tensor as T
class LogisticRegression(object):
"""Multi-class Logistic Regression Class
The logistic regression is fully described by a weight matrix :math:`W`
and bias vector :math:`b`. Classification is done by projecting data
points onto a set of hyperplanes, the distance to which is used to
determine a class membership probability.
"""
def __init__(self, input, n_in, n_out):
""" Initialize the parameters of the logistic regression
:type input: theano.tensor.TensorType
:param input: symbolic variable that describes the input of the
architecture (one minibatch)
:type n_in: int
:param n_in: number of input units, the dimension of the space in
which the datapoints lie
:type n_out: int
:param n_out: number of output units, the dimension of the space in
which the labels lie
"""
# start-snippet-1
# initialize with 0 the weights W as a matrix of shape (n_in, n_out)
self.W = theano.shared(
value=numpy.zeros(
(n_in, n_out),
dtype=theano.config.floatX
),
name='W',
borrow=True
)
# initialize the baises b as a vector of n_out 0s
self.b = theano.shared(
value=numpy.zeros(
(n_out,),
dtype=theano.config.floatX
),
name='b',
borrow=True
)
# symbolic expression for computing the matrix of class-membership
# probabilities
# Where:
# W is a matrix where column-k represent the separation hyper plain for
# class-k
# x is a matrix where row-j represents input training sample-j
# b is a vector where element-k represent the free parameter of hyper
# plain-k
self.p_y_given_x = T.nnet.softmax(T.dot(input, self.W) + self.b)
# symbolic description of how to compute prediction as class whose
# probability is maximal
self.y_pred = T.argmax(self.p_y_given_x, axis=1)
# end-snippet-1
# parameters of the model
self.params = [self.W, self.b]
def negative_log_likelihood(self, y):
"""Return the mean of the negative log-likelihood of the prediction
of this model under a given target distribution.
.. math::
\frac{1}{|\mathcal{D}|} \mathcal{L} (\theta=\{W,b\}, \mathcal{D}) =
\frac{1}{|\mathcal{D}|} \sum_{i=0}^{|\mathcal{D}|}
\log(P(Y=y^{(i)}|x^{(i)}, W,b)) \\
\ell (\theta=\{W,b\}, \mathcal{D})
:type y: theano.tensor.TensorType
:param y: corresponds to a vector that gives for each example the
correct label
Note: we use the mean instead of the sum so that
the learning rate is less dependent on the batch size
"""
# start-snippet-2
# y.shape[0] is (symbolically) the number of rows in y, i.e.,
# number of examples (call it n) in the minibatch
# T.arange(y.shape[0]) is a symbolic vector which will contain
# [0,1,2,... n-1] T.log(self.p_y_given_x) is a matrix of
# Log-Probabilities (call it LP) with one row per example and
# one column per class LP[T.arange(y.shape[0]),y] is a vector
# v containing [LP[0,y[0]], LP[1,y[1]], LP[2,y[2]], ...,
# LP[n-1,y[n-1]]] and T.mean(LP[T.arange(y.shape[0]),y]) is
# the mean (across minibatch examples) of the elements in v,
# i.e., the mean log-likelihood across the minibatch.
return -T.mean(T.log(self.p_y_given_x)[T.arange(y.shape[0]), y])
# end-snippet-2
def errors(self, y):
"""Return a float representing the number of errors in the minibatch
over the total number of examples of the minibatch ; zero one
loss over the size of the minibatch
:type y: theano.tensor.TensorType
:param y: corresponds to a vector that gives for each example the
correct label
"""
# check if y has same dimension of y_pred
if y.ndim != self.y_pred.ndim:
raise TypeError(
'y should have the same shape as self.y_pred',
('y', y.type, 'y_pred', self.y_pred.type)
)
# check if y is of the correct datatype
if y.dtype.startswith('int'):
# the T.neq operator returns a vector of 0s and 1s, where 1
# represents a mistake in prediction
return T.mean(T.neq(self.y_pred, y))
else:
raise NotImplementedError()
def shared_dataset(data_x, data_y, borrow=True):
""" Function that loads the dataset into shared variables
The reason we store our dataset in shared variables is to allow
Theano to copy it into the GPU memory (when code is run on GPU).
Since copying data into the GPU is slow, copying a minibatch everytime
is needed (the default behaviour if the data is not in a shared
variable) would lead to a large decrease in performance.
"""
shared_x = theano.shared(numpy.asarray(data_x,
dtype=theano.config.floatX),
borrow=borrow)
shared_y = theano.shared(numpy.asarray(data_y,
dtype=theano.config.floatX),
borrow=borrow)
# When storing data on the GPU it has to be stored as floats
# therefore we will store the labels as ``floatX`` as well
# (``shared_y`` does exactly that). But during our computations
# we need them as ints (we use labels as index, and if they are
# floats it doesn't make sense) therefore instead of returning
# ``shared_y`` we will have to cast it to int. This little hack
# lets ous get around this issue
return shared_x, T.cast(shared_y, 'int32')
def logreg(training_set, validation_set, n_inputs, n_classes, learning_rate=0.13, n_epochs=1000, batch_size=100):
train_set_x, train_set_y = training_set
valid_set_x, valid_set_y = validation_set
# compute number of minibatches for training, validation and testing
n_train_batches = train_set_x.get_value(borrow=True).shape[0] / batch_size
n_valid_batches = valid_set_x.get_value(borrow=True).shape[0] / batch_size
# allocate symbolic variables for the data
index = T.lscalar() # index to a [mini]batch
# generate symbolic variables for input (x and y represent a
# minibatch)
x = T.matrix('x') # data, presented as rasterized images
y = T.ivector('y') # labels, presented as 1D vector of [int] labels
classifier = LogisticRegression(input=x, n_in=n_inputs,
n_out=n_classes)
# the cost we minimize during training is the negative log likelihood of
# the model in symbolic format
cost = classifier.negative_log_likelihood(y)
validate_model = theano.function(
inputs=[index],
outputs=classifier.errors(y),
givens={
x: valid_set_x[index * batch_size: (index + 1) * batch_size],
y: valid_set_y[index * batch_size: (index + 1) * batch_size]
}
)
# compute the gradient of cost with respect to theta = (W,b)
g_W = T.grad(cost=cost, wrt=classifier.W)
g_b = T.grad(cost=cost, wrt=classifier.b)
# start-snippet-3
# specify how to update the parameters of the model as a list of
# (variable, update expression) pairs.
updates = [(classifier.W, classifier.W - learning_rate * g_W),
(classifier.b, classifier.b - learning_rate * g_b)]
# compiling a Theano function `train_model` that returns the cost, but in
# the same time updates the parameter of the model based on the rules
# defined in `updates`
train_model = theano.function(
inputs=[index],
outputs=cost,
updates=updates,
givens={
x: train_set_x[index * batch_size: (index + 1) * batch_size],
y: train_set_y[index * batch_size: (index + 1) * batch_size]
}
)
patience = 5000 # look as this many examples regardless
patience_increase = 2 # wait this much longer when a new best is
# found
improvement_threshold = 0.995 # a relative improvement of this much is
# considered significant
validation_frequency = min(n_train_batches, patience / 2)
# go through this many
# minibatche before checking the network
# on the validation set; in this case we
# check every epoch
best_validation_loss = numpy.inf
done_looping = False
epoch = 0
while (epoch < n_epochs) and (not done_looping):
epoch = epoch + 1
for minibatch_index in xrange(n_train_batches):
minibatch_avg_cost = train_model(minibatch_index)
# iteration number
iter = (epoch - 1) * n_train_batches + minibatch_index
if (iter + 1) % validation_frequency == 0:
# compute zero-one loss on validation set
validation_losses = [validate_model(i)
for i in xrange(n_valid_batches)]
this_validation_loss = numpy.mean(validation_losses)
# if we got the best validation score until now
if this_validation_loss < best_validation_loss:
#improve patience if loss improvement is good enough
if this_validation_loss < best_validation_loss * \
improvement_threshold:
patience = max(patience, iter * patience_increase)
best_validation_loss = this_validation_loss
# test it on the test set
if patience <= iter:
done_looping = True
break
return classifier